Does the Braden scale predict more than pressure injury risk in older inpatients?

Research Opportunity
Number of Honour Places Available
Medicine and Radiology
Royal Melbourne Hospital
Primary Supervisor Email Number Webpage
Dr Rebecca Iseli 0383872000
Co-supervisor Email Number Webpage
Prof Andrea Maier +61393422635 Personal web page

Summary The Braden scale is a commonly used assessment tool to predict risk of pressure injury (PI) in hospitalised patients, and there is emerging evidence that it may also predict morbidity and mortality. This study will examine the predictive value of the Braden scale for PI, functional outcomes and mortality in a cohort of older hospitalised adults.

Project Details

Pressure injuries (PI), defined as ‘localised damage to the skin and underlying soft tissue usually over a bony prominence or related to a medical or other device’[1], are a common problem in hospital inpatients, with reported Australian prevalence rates ranging from 3% to 11%[2]. Pressure injuries are often painful and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality[3]. Risk assessment tools such as the Braden scale are commonly used in clinical practice to identify patients at increased risk of PI incidence[4]. The Braden scale has also been shown to predict mortality and disability in cardiac failure and liver transplant cohorts [5-7].

The aims of this study are to:

  1. Determine the prevalence of pressure injuries among inpatients of Geriatric Evaluation and Management (GEM) units
  2. Describe the predictive value of Braden scale in this cohort
  3. Examine the association between Braden scale and functional performance (gait speed, muscle mass, muscle strength, balance); functional status (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and Katz Activities of Daily Living); discharge destination (community or aged care facility); and, mortality

The study is part of the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment study underway at the Royal Melbourne Hospital, a prospective study of patients admitted to GEM units.


  1. Edsberg, L.E., et al., Revised National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Pressure Injury Staging System: Revised Pressure Injury Staging System. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs, 2016. 43 (6): p. 585-597.
  2. Coyer, F., et al., Pressure injury prevalence in intensive care versus non-intensive care patients: A state-wide comparison. Aust Crit Care, 2017. 30 (5): p. 244-250.
  3. Wang, H., et al., Impact of pressure ulcers on outcomes in inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 2014. 93 (3): p. 207-16.
  4. Young, J., et al., Risk factors associated with pressure ulcer development at a major western Australian teaching hospital from 1998 to 2000: secondary data analysis. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs, 2002. 29 (5): p. 234-41.
  5. Sundaram, V., et al., The Braden Scale, A standard tool for assessing pressure ulcer risk, predicts early outcomes after liver transplantation. Liver Transpl, 2017. 23 (9): p. 1153-1160.
  6. Valiani, V., et al., Prognostic Value of Braden Activity Subscale for Mobility Status in Hospitalized Older Adults. J Hosp Med, 2017. 12 (6): p. 396-401.
  7. Bandle, B., et al., Can Braden Score Predict Outcomes for Hospitalized Heart Failure Patients? J Am Geriatr Soc, 2017. 65 (6): p. 1328-1332.

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Medicine and Radiology

Research Group / Unit / Centre


Research Node

Royal Melbourne Hospital

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